1. Nouns

 

Declension: The ending genitive singular (second word in the vocabulary listing) tells you what declension a noun belongs to.

 

ae – 1st declension     ī – 2nd declension      is – 3rd declension     ūs – 4th declension      – 5th declension

 

Case: The case of a Latin noun tells us how it functions in a sentence.

 

Case

Use

Example

 

 

 

Nominative

Subject

Mārcus arborem vidit.

Marcus sees the tree.

 

 

Predicate nominative

Cornēlia puella est.

Cornelia is a girl.

 

Genitive

Possession

Haec est villa Flaviae.

This is Flavia's house.

This is the house of Flavia.

 

Dative

Indirect object

Sextus canī cibum dat.

Sextus gives the dog food.

Sextus gives food to the dog.

 

Accusative

Direct object

Caledōnia cenam coquit.

Caledonia cooks dinner.

 

 

Place to which

Dāvus ad hortum ambulat.

Davus walks to the garden.

 

Ablative

Place where

Aurēlia in atriō sedet.

Aurelia sits in the atrium.

 

 

Place from which

Cornēlius ēx hortō currit.

Cornelius runs out of the garden.

 

 

Accompaniment

Cornēlia cum Flāviā ambulat.

Cornēlia walks with Flavia.

 

 

Means

Tītus glādiō pugnat.

Titus fights with a sword.

 

Vocative

Direct address

Sexte, ubi es?

Sextus, where are you?

Endings: the following chart lists the endings for Latin nouns.

 

 

1st f.

2nd m.

2nd n.

3rd m./f.

3rd n.

4th m.

4th n.

5th f.

Singular

Nom.

a

us

um

---*

---*

us

ū

es

Gen.

ae

ī

ī

is

is

ūs

ūs

Dat.

ae

ō

ō

ī

ī

ū

Acc.

am

um

um

em

---*

um

ū

em

Abl.

ā

ō

ō

e

e

ū

ū

e

Plural

Nom.

ae

ī

a

ēs

a

ūs

ua

ēs

Gen.

ārum

ōrum

ōrum

um

um

uum

uum

ērum

Dat.

īs

īs

īs

ibus

ibus

ibus

ibus

ēbus

Acc.

ās

ōs

a

ēs

a

ūs

ua

ēs

Abl.

īs

īs

īs

ibus

ibus

ibus

ibus

ēbus

 

* The blank indicates that you just use the nominative as it is given in the vocabulary listing.

 

The vocative case is the same as the nominative, except for 2nd declension masculine words ending in us or ius.

 

For the second declension:

nominative

vocative

us

e

ius

ī

all others

same as nominative

Examples:

 

 

servus

serve

filius

filī

vir

vir

 

 


 

Declining nouns: the stem of a nouns is found by removing the ending from the gentive singular. Then, add the endings from the chart above. Here are some examples.

 

 

1st declension

 

2nd declension

masculine

2nd declension

masculine

 

puella -ae f.

amīcus -ī m.

puer -ī m.

 

Singular

Nominative

puella

amicus

puer

Genitive

puellae

amīcī

puerī

Dative

puellae

amīcō

puerō

Accusative

puellam

amīcum

puerum

Ablative

puellā

amīcō

puerō

Vocative

puella

amīce

puer

 

Plural

Nominative

puellae

amīcī

puerī

Genitive

puellārum

amīcōrum

puerōrum

Dative

puellīs

amīcīs

puerīs

Accusative

puellās

amīcōs

puerōs

Ablative

puellīs

amīcīs

puerīs

Vocative

puellae

amīcī

puerī

 

 

 

2nd declension

neuter

3rd declension

masculine/feminine

3rd declension

neuter

 

donum -ī n.

pater -tris m.

corpus -oris n.

 

Singluar

Nominative

donum

pater

corpus

Genitive

donī

patris

corporis

Dative

donō

patrī

corporī

Accusative

donum

patrem

corpus

Ablative

donō

patre

corpore

Vocative

donum

pater

corpus

 

Plural

Nominative

dona

patrēs

corpora

Genitive

donōrum

patrum

corporum

Dative

donīs

patribus

corporibus

Accusative

dona

patrēs

corpora

Ablative

donīs

patribus

corporibus

Vocative

dona

patrēs

corpora

 

4th declension

masculine

4th declension

neuter

5th declension

 

 

arcus ūs m.

cornū ūs n.

diēs -eī m/f

 

Singluar

Nominative

arcus

cornū

diēs

Genitive

arcūs

cornūs

dieī

Dative

arcuī

cornū

dieī

Accusative

arcum

cornū

diem

Ablative

arcū

cornū

die

Vocative

arcus

cornū

diēs

 

Plural

Nominative

arcūs

cornua

diēs

Genitive

arcuum

cornuum

diērum

Dative

arcibus

cornibus

diēbus

Accusative

arcūs

cornua

diēs

Ablative

arcibus

cornibus

diēbus

Vocative

arcūs

cornua

diēs

2. Adjectives

 

Adjectives decline like nouns. There are two types of adjectives.

 

First and second declension adjectives

These adjectives have end in -us, -a, -um or -r, -a, -um. The follow the first declension in their feminine form and the second declension in their masculine and neuter forms.

 

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

 

 

Singular

 

Nominative

bonus

bona

bonum

Genitive

bonī

bonae

bonī

Dative

bonō

bonae

bonō

Accusative

bonum

bonam

bonum

Ablative

bonō

bonā

bonō

Vocative

bone

bona

bonum

 

 

Plural

 

Nominative

bonī

bonae

bona

Genitive

bonōrum

bonārum

bonōrum

Dative

bonīs

bonīs

bonīs

Accusative

bonōs

bonās

bona

Ablative

bonīs

bonīs

bonis

Vocative

bonī

bonae

bona

 

Third declension adjectives

 

Third declension adjectives have three different kinds of vocabulary listings. The first listing is three words, and these words are the nominatives of the three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter). The stem is found by removing is from the feminine.

 

celer celeris celere – swift, fast

celer: masculine nominative singular

celeris: feminine nominative singular            stem: celer

celere: neuter nominative singular

 

The second type of listing has two words. The first is the masculine and feminine nominative singular, and the second is the neuter nominative singular. The stem is found by removing is from the feminine.

           

similis simile – like

similis: masculine/feminine nominative singular     stem: simil

simile: neuter nominative singular

 

The third type of listing also has two words. The first is the nominative singular for all three genders, and the second is the genitive singular for all three genders. The stem is found by removing is from the genitive. You can tell the difference between this kind and the previous kind because the second word in the listing ends in -is, where in the version above it will end in –e.

           

ingēns ingentis – huge

ingēns: masculine/feminine/neuter nominative singular

ingentis: – masculine/feminine/neuter genitive singular     stem: ingent

 

These adjectives follow the third declension, except in the following cases:

case

regular third

adjective third

Abl. sing.

e

ī

Gen. pl.

um

ium

Nom/Acc pl. (neuter only)

a

ia

 

(Note: some nouns also follow this pattern. These are called i-stem nouns.)

 

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

 

 

Singular

 

Nominative

celer

celeris

celere

Genitive

celeris

celeris

celeris

Dative

celerī

celerī

celerī

Accusative

celerem

celerem

celere

Ablative

celerī

celerī

celerī

Vocative

celer

celeris

celere

 

 

Plural

 

Nominative

celerēs

celerēs

celeria

Genitive

celerium

celerium

celerium

Dative

celeribus

celeribus

celeribus

Accusative

celerēs

celerēs

celeria

Ablative

celeribus

celeribus

celeribus

Vocative

celerēs

celerēs

celerēs

 

 

There are no adjectives in the fourth or fifth declensions.

Noun-adjective agreement: an adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case. This does not mean that they will have matching endings, although sometimes they will.

 

Substantives: An adjective can sometimes be used in place of a noun. In English, this sometimes means that the translator (you!) must supply a noun.

 

Omnēs laetī sunt.        All are happy.                          Omnia bona sunt.       All things are good.

                                    All the people are happy.                                            Everything is good.

                                    Everyone is happy.

 

Comparison of adjectives: adjectives can have three degrees, called the positive, comparative, and superlative.

 

Positive           Comparative               Superlative

big                   bigger, rather big        biggest, very big

good                better, rather good      best, very good

 

positive

stem

(from feminine)

comparative

(stem + ior)

superlative

(stem + issimus)

altus, alta, altum

high, deep

alt

altior, altius

deeper, higher

altissimus -a -um

deepest, highest

īrātus, īrāta, īrātum

angry

īrāt

īrātior, īrātius

angrier

īrātissimus -a -um

angriest, very angry

audax, audacis

bold

audac

audacior, audacius

bolder

audacissimus -a -um

boldest, very bold

 

 

If the adjective ends in -er, the superlative ends in -errimus

 

positive

stem

(from feminine)

comparative

(stem + ior)

superlative

(masculine + -rimus)

pulcher -a -um

beautiful

pulch

pulchrior, pulchrius

more beautiful

pulcherrimus -a -um

most beautiful

acer, acris, acre

sharp

acr

acrior, acrius

sharper

acerrimus -a -um

sharpest

 

There are also six words – facilis (easy), difficilis (difficult), similis (like), dissimilis (unlike), gracilis (slender), humilis (lowly, humble) – that end in -illimus instead of -issimus in the superlative. Their superlatives are facillimus, difficillimus, simillimus, dissimilimus, gracillimus, and humillimus.

 

 

 

There are also several adjectives that have irregular comparatives and superlatives. The most common of these are:

 

positive

comparative

superlative

bonus good

melior better

optimus best

malus bad

pēior worse

pessimus worst

māgnus great

māior greater

maximus greatest

parvus small

minor less

minimus least

multus much

plus more

plūrimus most

multī many

plūrēs more

plūrimī most

 

 

3. Pronouns

 

Personal pronouns:

 

1st person (I, we)

2nd person (you, y'all)

 

Singular

Nom.

ego

Gen.

meī*

tuī*

Dat.

mīhi

tībi

Acc.

Abl.

 

Plural

Nom.

nōs

vōs

Gen.

nōstrum, nostrī*

vestrum, vestrī*

Dat.

nōbis

vōbis

Acc.

nōs

vōs

Abl

nōbis

vōbis

* The genitives of these are rarely used; the adjectives meus, tuus, noster, and vester are used to show possession.

 

3rd person (he, she, it, they)

 

m.

f.

n.

 

Singular

Nom

is

ea

id

Gen

eius

eius

eius

Dat

Acc

eum

eam

id

Abl

 

Plural

Nom

eae

ea

Gen

eōrum

eārum

eōrum

Dat

eīs

eīs

eīs

Acc

eōs

eās

ea

Abl

eīs

eīs

eīs

 


 

Demonstrative pronouns

 


ille – that, those

 

 

m.

f.

n.

 

Singular

Nom

ille

illa

illud

Gen

illius

illius

illius

Dat

illī

illī

illī

Acc

illum

illam

illud

Abl

illō

illā

illō

 

Plural

Nom

illī

illae

illa

Gen

illōrum

illārum

illōrum

Dat

illīs

illīs

illīs

Acc

illōs

illās

illa

Abl

illīs

illīs

illīs

 

hic – this, these

 

 

m.

f.

n.

 

Singular

Nom

hic

haec

hoc

Gen

huius

huius

huius

Dat

huīc

huīc

huīc

Acc

hunc

hanc

hoc

Abl

hōc

hāc

hōc

 

Plural

Nom

hae

haec

Gen

hōrum

hārum

hōrum

Dat

hīs

hīs

hīs

Acc

hōs

hās

haec

Abl

hīs

hīs

hīs

Relative pronoun

 

quī, quae, quod – who, which

 

 

m.

f.

n.

 

Singular

Nom

quī

quae

quod

Gen

cuius

cuius

cuius

Dat

cuī

cuī

cuī

Acc

quem

quam

quod

Abl

quō

quā

quō

 

Plural

Nom

quī

quae

quae

Gen

quōrum

quārum

quōrum

Dat

quibus

quibus

quibus

Acc

quōs

quās

quae

Abl

quibus

quibus

quibus

 

 

4. Verbs

 

Conjugations: we can tell what conjugation a verb belongs to by looking at the ending of the 2nd principle part.

 

āre – 1st          ēre – 2nd        ere – 3rd         īre – 4th

 

Present stem: used to form the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

 

1st and 2nd conjugations: 2nd principle part minus re

3rd and 4th conjugations: 1st principle part minus ō

 

Perfect stem: used to form the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses.

 

All conjugations: 3rd principle part minus ī

 

 

Personal endings:

 

Singular

Plural

1st Person

ō (I)

mus (we)

2nd Person

s (you)

tis (y’all)

3rd Person

t (he/she/it)

nt (they)

 

 

Perfect personal endings (used for perfect tense only):

 

 

Singular (translation)

Plural (translation)

1st person

ī (I)

imus (we)

2nd person

istī (you)

istis (y'all)

3rd person

it (he, she, it)

ērunt (they)

 

Present tense

Possible translations: I send, I am sending, I do send

 

1st and 2nd conjugation: stem + ending

3rd and 4th conjugation: stem + o, i, or u (fishhook) + ending

­

 

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

 

amō -āre

doceō -ēre

mittō -ere

faciō -ere

audiō -īre

stem:

amā

docē

mitt

faci

audi

 

Singular

 

1st

amō

doceō

mittō

faciō

audiō

2nd

amās

docēs

mittis

facis

audis

3rd

amat

docet

mittit

facit

audit

 

Plural

 

1st

amāmus

docēmus

mittimus

facimus

audimus

2nd

amātis

docētis

mittitis

facitis

auditis

3rd

amant

docent

mittunt

faciunt

audiunt

 


 

Imperfect tense

Possible translations: I was sending, I used to send, I sent (rarely)

 

1st and 2nd conjugation: stem + ba + ending

3rd and 4th conjugation: stem + ēba + endings

­

 

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

 

amō -āre

doceō -ēre

mittō -ere

faciō -ere

audiō -īre

stem:

amā

docē

mitt

faci

audi

 

Singular

1st

amābam

docebam

mittēbam

faciēbam

audiēbam

2nd

amābas

docēbas

mittēbas

faciēbas

audiēbas

3rd

amābat

docēbat

mittēbat

faciēbat

audiēbat

 

Plural

1st

amābamus

docēbamus

mittēbamus

faciēbamus

audiēbamus

2nd

amābatis

docēbatis

mittēbatis

faciēbatis

audiēbatis

3rd

amābant

docēbant

mittēbant

faciēbant

audiēbant

 

Future tense

Possible translations: I will send

 

1st and 2nd conjugation: stem + bō, bi, or bu (b plus fishhook) + ending

3rd and 4th conjugation: stem + a or e + endings

­

 

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

 

amō -āre

doceō -ēre

mittō -ere

faciō -ere

audiō -īre

stem:

amā

docē

mitt

faci

audi

 

Singular

1st

amābō

docebō

mittam

faciam

audiam

2nd

amābis

docēbis

mittēs

faciēs

audiēs

3rd

amābit

docēbit

mittet

faciet

audiet

 

Plural

1st

amābimus

docēbimus

mittēmus

faciēmus

audiēmus

2nd

amābitis

docēbitis

mittētis

faciētis

audiētis

3rd

amābunt

docēbunt

mittent

facient

audient

 


 

Perfect tense

Possible translations: I sent, I have sent

 

perfect stem + endings (same for all conjugations and even irregular verbs)

 

Examples:

­

 

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

 

amō -āre -āvī

doceō -ēre -uī

mittō -ere misī

faciō -ere fēcī

audiō -īre -īvī

stem:

amāv

docu

mis

fēc

audīv

 

Singular

1st

amavī

docuī

misī

fēcī

audīvī

2nd

amavistī

docuistī

misistī

fēcistī

audīvistī

3rd

amavit

docuit

misit

fēcit

audīvit

 

Plural

1st

amavimus

docuimus

misimus

fēcimus

audīvimus

2nd

amavistis

docuistis

misistis

fēcistis

audīvistis

3rd

amavērunt

docuērunt

misērunt

fēcērunt

audīvērunt

 

Pluperfect tense

Possible translations: I had sent

 

perfect stem + era + endings (same for all conjugations and even irregular verbs)

 

Examples:

­

 

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

 

amō -āre -āvī

doceō -ēre -uī

mittō -ere misī

faciō -ere fēcī

audiō -īre -īvī

stem:

amāv

docu

mis

fēc

audīv

 

Singular

1st

amaveram

docueram

miseram

fēceram

audīveram

2nd

amaverās

docuerās

miserās

fēcerās

audīverās

3rd

amaverat

docuerat

miserat

fēcerat

audīverat

 

Plural

1st

amaverāmus

docuerāmus

miserāmus

fēcerāmus

audīverāmus

2nd

amaverātis

docuerātis

miserātis

fēcerātis

audīverātis

3rd

amaverant

docuerant

miserant

fēcerant

audīverant

 

 

 

Future perfect tense

Possible translations: I will have sent

 

perfect stem + er, eri + endings

 

Examples:

­

 

1st conj.

2nd conj.

3rd conj.

3rd conj.

4th conj.

 

amō -āre -āvī

doceō -ēre -uī

mittō -ere misī

faciō -ere fēcī

audiō -īre -īvī

stem:

amāv

docu

mis

fēc

audīv

 

Singular

1st

amaverō

docuerō

miserō

fēcerō

audīverō

2nd

amaveris

docueris

miseris

fēceris

audīveris

3rd

amaverit

docuerit

miserit

fēcerit

audīverit

 

Plural

1st

amaverimus

docuerimus

miserimus

fēcerimus

audīverimus

2nd

amaveritis

docueritis

miseritis

fēceritis

audīveritis

3rd

amaverint

docuerint

miserint

fēcerint

audīverint

 

Irregular verbs

 

The most important irregular verb is sum, esse (“to be”). Also important is its compound possum, posse (“to be able”). These are irregular in the present, imperfect, and future. The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect are regular.

 

 

 

 

Present ("I am")

Imperfect ("I was")

Future ("I will be")

 

 

Singular

 

1st

sum

eram

erō

2nd

es

erās

eris

3rd

est

erat

erit

 

 

Plural

 

1st

sumus

erāmus

erimus

2nd

estis

erātis

eritis

3rd

sunt

erant

erint

 

 

Present ("I am able")

Imperfect ("I was able")

Future ("I will be able")

 

 

Singular

 

1st

possum

poteram

poterō

2nd

potes

poterās

poteris

3rd

potest

poterat

poterit

 

 

Plural

 

1st

possumus

poterāmus

poterimus

2nd

potestis

poterātis

poteritis

3rd

possunt

poterant

poterint

 

 

 

Other important irregular verbs:

 

Present Tense

 

 

 

ferō, ferre

volō, velle

eō, īre

 

“bear, carry, bring”

“want, wish”

“go”

 

 

Singular

 

1st

ferō = I bring

volō = I want

eō = I go

2nd

fers = you bring

vis = you want

is = you go

3rd

fert = he/she/it brings

vult = he/she/it wants

it = he/she/it goes

 

 

Plural

 

1st

ferimus = we bring

volumus = we want

imus = we go

2nd

fertis = y'all bring

vultis = y'all want

itis = y'all go

3rd

ferunt = they bring

volunt = they want

eunt = they go

 

 

 

 

Imperfect

ferēbam, etc.

volēbam, etc.

ībam, etc.

 

 

 

 

Future

feram, etc.

(like third conjugation)

volam, etc.

(like third conjugation)

ībō, etc.

(like first conjugation)

 

No verbs are irregular in the perfect, pluperfect, or future perfect.