Chapter I: Familia      Back to Chapter 1 contents

The linking verb sum, esse

In English, the linking verb "to be" means that something exists or is equivalent to another thing. For instance, you can say "I am here," meaning "I exist in this place," or "I am a student," meaning "I am the same thing as a student." In Latin, we use the verb sum, esse for the same thing. But just like the English verb "be" has different forms, so does the Latin verb sum.



1st person

sum = I am

sumus = we are

2nd person

es = you are

estis = y'all are

3rd person

est = he, she or it is

sunt = they are