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The Toga and the Sword, by Clint Hagen, is a Roman history textbook written for younger students. While not an exhaustive history of Rome, it provides beginning Latin students with the basics needed to understand Roman history. The text and accompanying worksheets are available for free below.

  • I. Roman History in Context
  • II. Periods of Roman History
  • III. The Founding of Rome
  • IV. Geography of Early Rome and Italy
  • V. The Monarchy
  • VI. Roman Society in the Early Republic
  • VII. The Conquest of Italy
  • VIII. The Punic Wars
  • IX. The Gracchi Brothers
  • X. Gaius Marius
  • XI. The Social War
  • XII. The First Civil War
  • XIII. The Rise of Pompey
  • XIV. Julius Caesar and the First Triumvirate
  • XV. The Second Civil War
  • XVI. The Dictatorship of Caesar
  • XVII. The Second Triumvirate
  • XVIII. The End of the Republic
  • XIX. The Reign of Augustus
  • XX. Tiberius
  • XXI. Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
  • XXII. The Year of the Four Emperors
  • XXIII. The Flavian Dynasty
  • XXIV. The Five Good Emperors
  • XXV. Commodus and the Severan Dynasty
  • XXVI. The Crisis of the Third Century
  • XXVII. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy
  • XXVIII. Constantine the Great
  • XXIX. The Fall of the Western Empire